When people make conversation they use all kinds of devices to convey their messages, including metaphor. Although metaphor is often associated with creative, complex and rhetorical texts (such as fiction, poetry, or speeches), metaphors are actually a characteristic feature of everyday discourse. For this reason, many researchers within linguistics, literature and psychology have already studied the way metaphors are used and processed in many types of language use. They have shown how metaphor use varies from extensive analogies to a single word and from novel comparisons to conventional expressions. At the same time, studies often focus on just one text type and one metaphor type and it often remains unclear how the metaphors were actually analysed. This thesis provides a unique quantitative and qualitative description of metaphor use in English conversations. Metaphorical expressions are identified with an explicit method for metaphor identification and a comparison is made between conversation, fiction, academic writing and news texts. As such, it places conclusions about metaphor use in conversation in a broader perspective. The results show that speech participants use relatively few metaphors, regardless of the type of metaphor, and that most of these metaphors are conventional. It seems that the quick and dynamic nature of conversations leaves speakers little time to come up with more creative and extensive metaphors. Moreover, the topic of a conversation influences metaphor use: the more abstract a topic becomes, the more metaphors are used. An experiment explores how tone of voice influences the way listeners understand metaphorical expressions.
|Over de auteur||Anna Kaal was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, on 27 July 1981. After finishing secondary school (Jan van Egmond College in Purmerend) in 1999, she studied English Language and Culture at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, where she graduated (cum laude|